89 Gluten Free Beers — The Ultimate Gluten Free Beer List in 2021
For all of you with a gluten free diet, this gluten free beer list is your ultimate guide to finding your favorite beer that you can drink without all those nasty side effects.
While some beers are truly gluten free, others are considered gluten reduced. Depending on your gluten intolerance, you certainly have the option to go completely gluten free when it comes to beer.
Here is a list of 101 gluten free and gluten reduced beers (in no particular order) that you should try.
Bard's Gluten Free Beer
Bard's Tale Beer Company | Edina, Minnesota | https://www.bardsbeer.com/
With sorghum, Bard's brews a tasty gluten free malt beer. Founders Craig Belser and Kevin Seplowitz both suffer from Celiac disease, so they decided to create a gluten free beer for themselves—and everyone else—to enjoy.
1. Bard's Beer
Bard's beer is the self-proclaimed "Original Sorghum Malt Beer". Some have compared the taste of Bard's to lighter mainstream brews such as Coors, Miller, and Heineken.
Omission Gluten Free Beer
Craft Brew Alliance | Portland, Oregon | https://omissionbeer.com
When Joe's wife was diagnosed with celiac disease, he made it his mission to brew a craft beer with minimal gluten. Consequently, the Omission brewery was born.
Omission uses a brewing enzyme called Brewers Clarex to break apart the gluten during fermentation. According to their website, every batch of beer has less than 20 parts per million gluten.
With 99 calories and just 5 grams of carbohydrates, Omission Ultimate Light is definitely this Portland brewery's lightest beer. Similarly, Ultimate Light has the least alcohol content of the Omission beer lineup with a 4% ABV.
3. Omission IPA
Omission's only IPA is a hefty, hoppy beer with 202 calories and 15 grams of carbs. Omission IPA certainly packs a punch though with its 6.7% ABV.
With an alcohol content of 5.8% ABV, Omission Pale Ale has a nice floral aroma and caramel malt body. Omission Pale Ale has 181 calories and 13 grams of carbohydrates per serving.
For you lager lovers out there, Omission Lager won't disappoint. Coming in with 134 calories and 10 grams of carbs, Omission Lager has a standard 4.6% ABV per serving.
Dogfish Head Gluten Free Beer
Dogfish Head Brewery | Milton, Delaware | https://www.dogfish.com/
When Sam Calagione established Dogfish Head Brewery in June 1995, he probably didn't think it would grow into what it is today. Named after Dogfish Head in Maine where Sam spent time as a child, this Delaware craft brewery has been featured on the Discovery Channel and was a focal point in the Beer Wars documentary.
This 6.0% ABV fruit ale smells like strawberries, and as you would expect, it tastes tart, fruity and sweet. Barley is not used to brew Tweason Ale, but rather a mild sorghum base.
New Grist Gluten Free Beer
Lakefront Brewery | Milwaukee, Wisconsin | https://www.lakefrontbrewery.com/
Russ and Jim Klisch established Lakefront Brewery in 1987. The Milwaukee craft brewery brews New Grist gluten free beer in addition to a repertoire of other gluten-containing beers.
New Grist is brewed with ingredients that you can understand: water, sorghum, rice, hops and yeast. There is no wheat or barley in this Milwaukee beer. New Grist pilsner has a 5.1% ABV.
Green's Gluten Free Beer
Green's Beer | Lochristi, Belgium | https://www.glutenfreebeers.co.uk/
Between 1988 and 2003, Derek Green went searching for gluten free beer. He took matter into his own hands in 2003 when he collaborated with a Belgian professor on creating a brewing process to make beer without barley, wheat, and grains. Finally in 2004, Green's first gluten free beer, Discovery, came into existence.
Green's original beer is naturally gluten free with ingredients water, buckwheat, millet, sorghum, hops, brown rice, and yeast. With 157 calories and 10 grams of carbs per 12 oz serving, Green's Discovery beer has an ABV of 6%.
Although there's barley in Green's Pilsner gluten free beer, the gluten gets removed from the barley malt. The only other ingredients are natural spring water, hops, and yeast. Green's Pilsner has 149 calories, 12 grams of carbs, and an ABV of 4.5% per 12 ounce serving.
With 154 calories and 14 grams of carbohydrates per 12 ounce serving, Green's Golden Ale is also brewed with barley where the gluten has been removed. Green's Golden Ale gluten free beer has an ABV of 4.8%.
11. Green's Blond
By fermenting a second time in the bottle, Green's Blond beer is brewed like a classic style Belgian beer. Green's Blonde contains 154 calories and 10 grams of carbs per 12 ounce serving and has a 5% ABV.
12. Green's Dark Ale
Another bottle re-fermented brew, but this time an ale with an ABV of 5%. Considering Green's Dark Ale tastes like chocolate with sour cherries, its 158 calories and 10 grams of carbs is pretty reasonable.
13. Green's Amber
Green's Amber beer contains specially selected de-glutenized malts and hops that give it its deep amber color and creamy head. Per 12 ounce serving, Green's Amber gluten free beer contains 158 calories, 8 grams of carbs, and a 5% ABV.
Water, buckwheat, millet, sorghum, hops, brown rice, and yeast make up Green's Dry Hopped Lager that is naturally gluten free. A 4% alcohol content is fitting for this lighter beer that has 125 calories and 8 grams of carbohydrates per 12 ounce serving.
Quite similar to the Dry Hopped Lager in terms of nutritional values, Green's IPA also has 125 calories and 8 grams of carbs per 12 ounce serving. What's different is that Green's gluten free IPA has an ABV of 5%.
Made with gluten free ancient grains, Green's Tripel Ale is a lighter beer with notes of spice and herb. An 8.5% ABV makes Tripel Ale Green's beer with the most alcohol content. Green's Tripel Ale has 203 calories and 9 grams of carbs per 12 ounce serving.
Following suit of a traditional dubbel, Green's Dubbel Ale tastes of dark-sugar and toffee flavors. Green's Dubbel Ale is gluten free and has 165 calories, 8 grams of carbs, and a 7% ABV per 12 ounce serving.
Buck Wild Gluten Free Pale Ale
Alpenglow Beer Company | Oakland, California | https://buckwildbrew.com/
Buck Wild considers itself to brew California's first 100% gluten free beer. Located in the San Francisco Bay area, Buck Wild beer is brewed by the Alpenglow Beer Company.
In addition to Magnum, Cascade, and US Chinook hops, Buck Wild Pale Ale is brewed with water, millet, organic buckwheat, brown rice syrup, and yeast. Buck Wild Pale Ale has an alcohol content of 5.5% by volume.
With 5.1% ABV, this light beer with a slight honey finish is brewery with pale rice malt, millet, and buckwheat in addition to hops and yeast.
This gluten free West Coast IPA has an ABV of 6.3% and is full of citrus and sweet fruit aroma.
This hazy and tropical beer contains 6.8% ABV and like the rest of Buck Wild's lineup, does not contain gluten.
New Planet Beer
New Planet Brewery | Denver, Colorado | https://www.newplanetbeer.com/
Pedro Gonzalez, a celiac sufferer, established New Planet Brewery in 2009. New Planet gluten free beer alcohol content ranges from 4.5% to 5.3%.
You don't have to have blonde hair to enjoy the light and crisp taste of the gluten free New Planet Blonde Ale. With an ABV of 4.8%, New Planet Blonde Ale contains water, millet, gluten-free oats, non-GMO blue corn, cane sugar, hops, and yeast.
Thanks to Cascade, Falconers Flight, and Bravo hops, New Planet Pale Ale has a hoppy and citrusy flavor profile. New Planet Pale Ale has an alcohol content 6.0% and is of course gluten free.
Ipswich Gluten Free Beer
Ipswich Ale Brewery | Ipswich, Massachusetts | https://www.ipswichalebrewery.com/
Founded in 1991, Ipswich Ale Brewery is one of the oldest craft brewers in New England. Although the brewery staff is less than a dozen strong, this small Massachusetts brewery exports all across New England.
With notes of Curacao orange peel and peppery Belgian yeast, Ipswich G Free Saison is a delicious saison. Using sorghum to make it gluten free, Ipswich Ale Brewery's G Free Saison has a 6.9% ABV.
Ground Breaker Gluten Free Beer
Ground Breaker Brewing | Portland, Oregon | https://www.groundbreakerbrewing.com/
Not only is all the beer at the Ground Breaker brewery gluten free, but so is all the food at the gastropub in Portland. Chestnuts, lentils, cane sugar, sorghum syrup, and Belgian-style candi syrup is what allows Ground Breaker Brewing to brew gluten free beer.
Ground Breaker Pale Ale is dry hopped with Cascade and Meridian hops. Floral elements and citrus combine to make this 5.7% ABV pale ale something to desire.
27. Dark Ale
Dark roasted chestnuts and lentils are used to brew Ground Breaker Dark Ale. Although chocolate isn't an ingredient, this dark ale has notes of chocolate and dark fruits and has an ABV of 4.5%.
28. IPA NO. 5
Like the rest of the beers brewed at Ground Breaker, the IPA is also gluten free. With an ABV of 6%, Ground Breaker IPA NO. 5 combines pine, citrus, and tropical notes.
29. Olallie Ale
Blackberries and rose hips are used to brew Ground Breaker Olallie Ale. With a 30 IBU, Olallie Ale is minimally bitter and has a 4.5 % ABV.
Stone Delicious IPA Gluten Free
Stone Brewing Company | Escondido, California | https://www.stonebrewing.com
Greg Koch and Steve Wagner established Stone Brewing Company in 1996. Today, this 8th largest craft brewery in the US employs over 1,100 employees. Stone Brewing has breweries in Richmond, Virginia and Berlin, Germany.
30. Delicious IPA
Although Stone Delicious IPA is brewed with barley, it is considered a gluten free beer thanks to Clarex which separates and eliminates the gluten protein from the brew. With a solid 7.7% ABV, Stone Delicious contains trace amounts of gluten that is well below the 20 ppm necessary to consider a beer gluten free.
Glutenberg Craft Brewery | Montreal, Canada | https://glutenberg.ca/
Starting out in just the local Quebec market, the Glutenberg brewery now distributes to target markets throughout the world. All of Glutenberg's beer is 100% gluten free. Since all ingredients used to brew Glutenberg beer are certified gluten free, each and every ounce of beer that leaves the Glutenberg brewery contains 0.00 ppm gluten content. In addition, Glutenberg gluten free beer is vegan and the bottles and cans don't contain any BPA.
In 2011, the first Glutenberg beer was launched in Quebec. With a 4.5% ABV, Glutenberg Blonde tastes of white pepper, green tea, and lemon peel.
Glutenberg American Pale Ale is this Quebec brewery's first hoppy beer. Coming in at 5.5% ABV, the American Pale Ale has tastes of candied orange and caramel.
33. Glutenberg Red
The Glutenberg Red is an ale with 5% alcohol content. Ingredients for this red ale are water, buckwheat, millet, molasses, chestnut, candi syrup, quinoa hops, and yeast which gives it a taste of toasted bread, coffee, and chestnuts.
34. Glutenberg IPA
While the Glutenberg IPA smells lemony and floral, it tastes primarily of apricot. With a 6% ABV, this gluten free IPA is perfect for all beer lovers.
35. Glutenberg Stout
If you like coffee you will probably enjoy Glutenberg Stout. Glutenberg Stout has an alcohol content of 5% and tastes of espresso, dark chocolate, and ripe fruit.
36. Glutenberg White
Although Belgian white beers are typically brewed with wheat, the Glutenberg White uses buckwheat, millet, amaranth, and quinoa instead to create this gluten free white beer. With a 5% ABV, Glutenberg White is easy to drink thanks to its 13 rating on the IBU scale.
This session IPA contains 4.5% ABV, has an IBU of 10, and contains flavors of pineapple, lime,a nf flowers.
38. Glutenberg Gose
Made with millet, buckwheat, and quinoa to make it gluten free, Glutenberg Gose is borderline a sour beer with 3.5% ABV.
With a 99 IBU and 7% ABV, this double IPA is a strong beer with orange and pineapple flavors.
Duck Foot Gluten Free Beer
Duck Foot Brewing Company | San Diego, California | https://duckfootbeer.com/
A gluten intolerance inspired Matt DelVecchio to give up his NYC finance career and to move to California and brew gluten free beer. And so in 2012, Duck Foot Brewing was born.
According to their website, Duck Foot Brewing uses a special enzyme that removes nearly all traces of gluten from the beer, leaving every batch with less than 5 ppm gluten. It's worth noting that the FDA considers a product gluten free when it has less than 20 ppm gluten. Duck Foot gluten free beers certainly meet this criteria.
40. The Looker
Cascade hops gives Duck Foot's The Looker a crisp and refreshing citrusy taste. With an ABV of 5%, The Looker is an American Blonde Ale packed with flavor.
With an impressive 6.9% ABV, Drink This or the Bees Die is only 15 IBU. As the name loosely implies, this Duck Foot ale contains local honey.
Another tasty Duck Foot beer with 6.5% ABV, this west coast style IPA is brewed with Simcoe hops that gives it a citrus and pine flavor. This Duck Foot IPA is much more bitter with a 68 IBU rating.
43. Kook Slams
Kook Slams is another west coast style IPA but this time with an alcohol content of 7.5%.
With an 95 on the IBU bitterness scale, Duckzilla is not only Duck Foot Brewing's most bitter beer, but also the beer with the highest alcohol content at 8.6%. This double white IPA is considered to be a cross between a white ale and a west coast IPA.
Holidaily Gluten Free Beer
Holidaily Brewing Company | Golden, Colorado | https://holidailybrewing.com
Karen Hertz established Holidaily Brewing Company, a gluten free brewery in Colorado, after defeating melanoma and thyroid cancer. Her treatment plan included a gluten-free diet. Not satisfied with the taste and quality of other gluten free beers, Karen decided to take matters into her own hands and brew her own gluten free beer.
Holidaily Favorite Blonde ale has a subtle hop character and mellow malt flavor. With a 5% ABV, Favorite Blonde is one of Holidaily's lighter beers.
46. Fat Randy’s IPA
The man, the myth, the legend—Fat Randy's IPA is a 7% ABV gluten free beer from Holidaily Brewing in Golden, Colorado.
47. Big Henry
This gluten free beer has an ABV of 6.3% and contains notes of citrus which gives its a tropical flavor.
48. Riva Stout
Riva Stout was named after a dog, who was named after a mountain, which was named after a battle at Riva Ridge. At 6.5% ABV, Holidaily Riva Stout is yet another gluten free craft beer from Holidaily Brewing.
49. Patchy Waters
Patchy Waters is a fall seasonal pumpkin ale with a 6% ABV and lands at a 15 on the IBU scale.
50. Beulah Red
Beulah Red is a gluten free beer from the Colorado brewery Holidaily and has an alcohol content of 6.4%. This is a winter seasonal beer.
51. Buckwit Belgian
The lowest alcohol content of all Holidaily beers at 4.8%, Buckwit Belgian is a witbier style gluten free beer from Holidaily Brewing. This is a spring seasonal beer.
Two Brothers Gluten Free Beer
Two Brothers Brewing | Warrenville, Illinois | https://twobrothersbrewing.com/
Jim and Jason Ebel, two brothers from Illinois, established Two Brothers Brewing Company in 1996. In addition to brewing craft beer, these two brothers now also brew coffee and distill spirits too.
Two Brothers Prairie Path gluten free beer is light in color but full of flavor. According to their website, Prairie Path is "crafted to remove gluten but not flavor". The alcohol content of Two Brothers Prairie Path is 5.1%.
Ghostfish Brewing Company | Seattle, WA | https://ghostfishbrewing.com/
With an ambitious mission "to be the leading supplier of dedicated gluten-free beer in North America", Ghostfish Brewing Company in Seattle seems to be off to a good start with six gluten free beers available year-round and numerous other seasonal brews.
53. Grapefruit IPA
You'll definitely taste the grapefruit flavor in the 5.5% ABV Ghostfish Grapefruit IPA. Ingredients for this IPA are water, sorghum, brown rice, candi syrup, tapioca maltodextrin, hops, grapefruit peel, and yeast.
Multiple varieties of gluten free millet and rice malts in addition to four varieties of Washington hops are combined to make this naturally gluten free beer. Ghostfish Vanishing Point Pale Ale has an alcohol content of 5.3%.
Shrouded Summit Belgian White Ale is a witbier without wheat or barley by the Ghostfish brewery. At 4.8%, this Belgian-style ale tastes of banana, clove, and sweet orange.
56. Kick Step IPA
This West Coast style IPA has flavors of citrus, mango and pine. Ghostfish Kick Step IPA is made from water, malted millet, malted rice, brown rice, beet sugar, hops, and yeast and has a 5.5% ABV.
Made with just water, malted millet, malted rice, hops, and yeast, Ghostfish Meteor Shower Blonde Ale has an alcohol content of 4.5%. While the rice is from California and the hops are Noble German Perle, Meteor Shower has notes of honey, sweet rice, corn, and honeydew.
Ghostfish's gluten free beer with the most alcohol content is Peak Buster Double IPA with a 9% ABV. Made from Summit, Azacca, Centennial, and Eureka hops, Peak Buster tastes tropical, citrusy, and piney.
High Hopes Gluten Free Beer
High Hops Brewery | Windsor, Colorado | https://highhopsbrewery.com
What started out as a small, seasonal greenhouse is now home to High Hopes Brewery in Colorado. Now with over 40 flavors of beer available in their Colorado tap room, Amanda and Pat Weakland have grown their once small brewery into something great.
High Hopes Puckerberry is a blackberry sour gluten free beer. Puckerberry is made from gluten free buckwheat and millet and contains 4.2% alcohol by volume.
Odd13 Brewing | Lafayette, Colorado | http://www.odd13brewing.com/
Located in Lafayette, Colorado, Odd13 Brewery was founded by Kristin and Ryan Scott. At this time, all year-round beers are gluten free. Odd13 does brew gluten-containing beer as part of its seasonal selection.
Codename: Superfan is a tasty IPA with Citra, Simcoe, and Ekuanot hops. This Odd13 IPA has a nice 6.5% ABV.
61. Colorado Kid
Using locally sourced ingredients, Colorado Kid is a hazy IPA and contains 7.2% ABV.
Intergalactic Juice Hunter from Odd13 Brewing is a double IPA with Galaxy, Amarillo, and Simcoe hops. While this brew isn't friendly to those with a lactose intolerance, it is gluten free and has an alcohol content of 8%.
63. Jetman Jimmy
Jetman Jimmy is a lightly hopped golden ale with oats. This Odd13 brew has an alcohol content of 4.5% by volume.
Hilariously named n00b beer from Odd13 is a pale ale with Mosaic and El Dorado hops. The alcohol content of n00b beer is 6%.
This kettle sour is yet another gluten free beer from Odd13. Vincent Van Couch is brewed with Citra and Mosaic hops and has a 4.8% ABV.
St. Peter's Gluten Free Beer
St. Peter’s Brewery | Bungay, United Kingdom | https://www.stpetersbrewery.co.uk
Based out of St. Peter South Elmham, near Bungay in Suffolk, St. Peter's Brewery has been around since 1996. Although St. Peter's doesn't exclusively brew gluten free beer, it does offer two gluten free beers for those on a gluten free diet.
This gluten free golden ale is brewed with Suffolk malt and contains hints of citrus. Suffolk Gold has 4.2% ABV.
St. Peter's Cream Stout is a coffee and vanilla tasting beer with hints of chocolate that contains 6.5% ABV.
Aurochs Gluten Free Beer
Aurochs Brewing Company | Emsworth, Pennsylvania | https://aurochsbrewing.com/
Brewed on the Ohio River just outside of Pittsburgh, all beer from Aurochs Brewing Company is gluten free. Aurochs achieves this by using different roasts of malted millet, quinoa, and buckwheat in various combinations. Aurochs is yet another brewery that was established due to a gluten intolerance, this time by Ryan Bove when he was in his mid-twenties.
Saaz and Amarillo hops give Aurochs Blonde Ale tropical notes of melon, banana, papaya, and lemon. Brewed with naturally gluten free millet and quinoa, this blonde ale from Aurochs has a 4.5% ABV.
In addition to citrus and pine flavors, Aurochs Session IPA tastes of grapefruit. Cascade, Centennial, and Amarillo hops combined with millet and quinoa give this Aurochs IPA an ABV of 4.5%.
Cascade hops plus millet and quinoa are combined to make Aurochs Amber ale—a medium bodied ale that's full of toast and toffee flavors. Aurochs Amber Ale contains 5.5% ABV.
71. Aurochs Porter
Aurochs Porter is brewed with Simcoe and Saaz hop as well as millet, quinoa, and buckwheat to give it its coffee flavor. This porter from Aurochs has a 5.6% ABV.
72. Aurochs Hazy IPA
Papaya, mango, peach, and orange notes in combination with the hops compose the tropical flavor of this hazy IPA by Aurochs with 6.7% ABV.
This light gluten free lager is brewery with millet, quinoa, buckwheat, hops, and yeast. Aurochs Light Lager contains 3.4% ABV.
Celia Gluten Free Lager
Carlsberg Group | Czech Republic | https://www.carlsberggroup.com/products/?brand=14854
After a long history of beer brewing in the region, Žatecky Brewery started producing beer in its Czech Republic brewery at the turn of the nineteenth century. Celia beer is brewed with quality local ingredients and gluten is removed through deglutenization methods.
In addition to being gluten free, Celia Premium Czech Lager is vegan and organic. With just 129 calories per bottle, Celia Lager has a 4.6% ABV.
Similar to the Celia Lager, Celia Premium Czech Dark is gluten free, vegan, and organic. Each bottle of Celia Dark contains 175 calories and 5.7% alcohol by volume.
Koala Beer Pty Ltd | New South Wales, Australia | https://www.wildebeer.com.au/
In addition to being gluten free, all Wilde beers are preservative free, vegan friendly, and low carb. According to their website, Wilde Beer is the only beer in the world to be certified FODMAP Friendly. Not only for the gluten-intolerant, WILDE beer is for beer drinkers everywhere.
76. Wilde Pale Ale
Wilde Pale Ale is a golden pale ale with 3.5% ABV. While no sugar was added to this pale ale, it has tropical fruit flavors.
Made with sorghum instead of wheat or barley, this easy-drinking lager contains 4.2% ABV.
Billabong Brewing | Perth, Australia | https://billabongbrewing.com.au/
Another Australian brewery, Billabong Brewing, brews both gluten containing and gluten free beer. Billabong gluten free beer is blessed by the Coeliac Society of Australia with a gluten free stamp on every label.
A perfectly refreshing beer that's appropriate for the unrelenting heat of western Australia, Billabong Australia's Pale Ale tastes of passion fruit and grapefruit. Australia's Pale Ale from Billabong contains 5.1% ABV.
Gluten free and low carb, Billabong Blonde Low Carb Lager is a perfect go-to for those craving a light beer. Billabong Lager contains 4.5% ABV.
80. Ginger Beer
This ginger beer from Billabong contains 4.5% alcohol by volume. If you like ginger beer, you'll be sure to love Billabong Ginger Beer.
Alt Brew Gluten Free Beer
Alt Brew | Madison, Wisconsin | https://www.altbrew.com/
The mission of Alt Brew is "to make gluten free beer that tastes good". Brewmaster, Trevor Easton, created this entirely gluten free brewery after his wife was diagnosed with a gluten intolerance. Now, Alt Brew is a well established brewery in Madison, Wisconsin where beer lovers of all types can enjoy beer without any gluten side effects.
81. Rustic Badger
Alt Brew's flagship beer is the Rustic Badger. This farmhouse ale is slightly bitter with notes of apple and contains 6.6% alcohol.
82. Hollywood Nights
One of Alt Brew's stronger year-round beers is Hollywood Nights with an alcohol content of 7.2%. While this blonde IPA is heavy on the hops, its herbal flavor gives it a smooth bitterness that is very drinkable.
Alt Brew Copperhead is a copper ale with 5.1% alcohol by volume. Millet is used to brew this gluten free ale that tastes malty and chocolatey.
84. Hiking Boots
Hiking Boots blonde ale from Alt Brew has a custom blend of hops and contains 4.7% ABV.
Malty and dark, Alt Brew 1808 has roasty characteristics to it. This Alt Brew porter contains 5.6% ABV.
86. Holy Hop Grenade
Holy Hop Grenade contains the most alcohol content of any beer from Alt Beer. With an 8.9% ABV and 98 IBU, this double IPA is robust, malty, and hoppy for sure.
Although hefeweissbier translates to "yeast white beer", this beer is most definitely gluten-free and contains 5.6% ABV.
88. Igneous IPA
This west coast IPA has a 6.6% ABV and, like the rest of the Alt Brew beers, is also gluten free.
Residual sweetness balances out the roasty and bitter flavors of this gluten free stout that contains 7.1% ABV.
That concludes the gluten free beer list! Tell me what your favorite gluten free beer is below so I can add it to the list.
Before you go grab a beer, I just want to thank you for reading.